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Titanium element

Titanium is a chemical element with the element symbol Ti and the Order number 22 It is among the transition metals and is in the Periodic Table in the 4th Subgroup (Group 4) or titanium group. The Metal has a white metallic luster is light, strong, elastic, and corrosion and heat resistant. It is therefore particularly suitable for applications where high corrosion resistance, strength and low weight is important. Due to the complicated manufacturing process it is ten times as expensive as conventional titanium Steel.

Titanium history

Titanium was discovered in 1791 in England by geologist and pastor William Gregor in a stream in the parish of Manaccan who actually called it 'manaccanite'. In 1795 it was also discovered by the German Chemist Heinrich Klaproth in rutile ore and he named it "Titanium" being inspired by the Greek gods, the Titans. Pure titanium metal (99.9%) was first purified in 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter by heating Titanium tetra chloride (TiCl4) with sodium at 700 to 800 ° C. Not until the 1940s did William Justin Kroll succeed with his refining process 'the Kroll process' to produce, on a large-scale the reduction of Titanium tetrachloride with magnesium, the titanium needed for commercial applications. This process is still used for commercial production. Starting in the 50's Titanium has been used in military applications and of late from surgical instruments to fine jewelry.

Titanium deposits

Titanium is found in the Earth's crust and is always bonded to other elements. It is not rare, but at 0.63% it's the 7th most abundant element. Usually it is only present in low concentrations in most igneous rock and sediments as well as in living things and natural bodies of water. The main deposits are in Australia, Scandinavia, North America, the Urals, and Malaysia. In 2010, large deposits in Paraguay were discovered, but their exploitation is only in the planning stage. Meteorites can contain titanium. In the sun and M-type stars it has also been detected. The Moon is also a resource. Rock samples from Apollo 17 contained up to 12.1% TiO2.

Titanium mining

Pure titanium in the ground is rare. Titanium is from ilmenite or more importantly rutile. The manufacturing process used is very complex, which is reflected in the high price of titanium. The mechanical properties and corrosive behavior when alloying with aluminum, vanadium, manganese, molybdenum, palladium, copper, zirconium and tin is significantly enhanced.

Titanium applications

Jewelry Watches Eyeglass frames Maritime Applications Cutlery Golf clubs Tennis rackets Ice screws for rock climbing Aircraft and spacecraft for highly stressed parts Bio-material Implants in the medical and dentistry profession (Dental implants account for about 200,000 units annually in Germany alone) because of its excellent corrosion resistance in contrast to other metals. An immunological rejection (Implant allergy) does not exist. Even with dental crowns and bridges it has a significantly lower cost compared to when Gold alloys are used. In orthopedic surgery as metallic prosthetic legs and hip and knee replacements for osteoarthritis, it is used en masse. The Titanium oxide layer allows the solid growth of bone on the Implant (osseo-integration), enabling permanent installation of the artificial implant in the human body. In middle ear surgery, titanium is used as material for ossicular replacement, prostheses and ventilation tubes are preferred uses. In neurosurgery titanium clips are used for aneurysm surgery because of its favorable NMR properties. Electronics In 2002 Nokia introduced the 8910 mobile phone and a year later the cell phone 8910i to the market, comprising a housing made of titanium. In April 2002, Apple Inc., introduced the notebook "PowerBook G4 Titanium" to the market. Large parts of the body were made of titanium which made the notebook with a 15.2" screen version at a thickness of 1" and weighed only 2.4 kg. Some notebooks, the ThinkPad series, from Lenovo (formerly IBM) have a titanium-reinforced plastic housing or a housing frame made of a titanium-magnesium composite.